Legislative Action to Prevent Female Trafficking (2009) [MAP]

Legislative Action to Prevent Female Trafficking (2009) [MAP]

A world map showing the legislative situation in different countries to prevent female trafficking as of 2009 according to Woman Stats Project. (On a Scale of Green=0, Stringent, Orange=Effective (Tier 1 via State Department), Blue=Procedures in place but inconsistent, Purple= Limited Laws, Red=No laws for trafficking from or into the country, Black= no data)

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Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women

Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against WomenGeneral Assembly resolution 48/104 of 20 December 1993

The General Assembly,

Recognizing the urgent need for the universal application to women of the rights and principles with regard to equality, security, liberty, integrity and dignity of all human beings,

Noting that those rights and principles are enshrined in international instruments, including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1/ the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 2/ the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 2/ the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women 3/ and the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, 4/

Recognizing that effective implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women would contribute to the elimination of violence against women and that the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, set forth in the present resolution, will strengthen and complement that process,

1/ Resolution 217 A (III).

2/ See resolution 2200 A (XXI), annex.

3/ Resolution 34/180, annex.

4/ Resolution 39/46, annex.

Concerned that violence against women is an obstacle to the achievement of equality, development and peace, as recognized in the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women, 5/ in which a set of measures to combat violence against women was recommended, and to the full implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women,

Affirming that violence against women constitutes a violation of the rights and fundamental freedoms of women and impairs or nullifies their enjoyment of those rights and freedoms, and concerned about the long-standing failure to protect and promote those rights and freedoms in the case of violence against women, [Bold added]

Recognizing that violence against women is a manifestation of historically unequal power relations between men and women, which have led to domination over and discrimination against women by men and to the prevention of the full advancement of women, and that violence against women is one of the crucial social mechanisms by which women are forced into a subordinate position compared with men, [Bold added]

Concerned that some groups of women, such as women belonging to minority groups, indigenous women, refugee women, migrant women, women living in rural or remote communities, destitute women, women in institutions or in detention, female children, women with disabilities, elderly women and women in situations of armed conflict, are especially vulnerable to violence, [Bold added]

Recalling the conclusion in paragraph 23 of the annex to Economic and Social Council resolution 1990/15 of 24 May 1990 that the recognition that violence against women in the family and society was pervasive and cut across lines of income, class and culture had to be matched by urgent and effective steps to eliminate its incidence,

Recalling also Economic and Social Council resolution 1991/18 of 30 May 1991, in which the Council recommended the development of a framework for an international instrument that would address explicitly the issue of violence against women,

Welcoming the role that women’s movements are playing in drawing increasing attention to the nature, severity and magnitude of the problem of violence against women,

Alarmed that opportunities for women to achieve legal, social, political and economic equality in society are limited, inter alia, by continuing and endemic violence,

5/ Report of the World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and PeaceNairobi, 15-26 July 1985 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.85.IV.10), chap. I, sect. A.

Convinced that in the light of the above there is a need for a clear and comprehensive definition of violence against women, a clear statement of the rights to be applied to ensure the elimination of violence against women in all its forms, a commitment by States in respect of their responsibilities, and a commitment by the international community at large to the elimination of violence against women,

Solemnly proclaims the following Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women and urges that every effort be made so that it becomes generally known and respected:

Article 1
For the purposes of this Declaration, the term “violence against women” means any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life.
Article 2
Violence against women shall be understood to encompass, but not be limited to, the following:
(a) Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family, including battering, sexual abuse of female children in the household, dowry-related violence, marital rape, female genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women, non-spousal violence and violence related to exploitation;
(b) Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring within the general community, including rape, sexual abuse, sexual harassment and intimidation at work, in educational institutions and elsewhere, trafficking in women and forced prostitution;
(c) Physical, sexual and psychological violence perpetrated or condoned by the State, wherever it occurs.
Article 3
Women are entitled to the equal enjoyment and protection of all human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field. These rights include, inter alia:
(a) The right to life;  6/
(b) The right to equality; 7/
6/ Universal Declaration of Human Rights, article 3; and International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, article 6.
7/ International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, article 26.
(c) The right to liberty and security of person; 8/
(d) The right to equal protection under the law; 7/
(e) The right to be free from all forms of discrimination; 7/
(f) The right to the highest standard attainable of physical and mental health; 9/
(g) The right to just and favourable conditions of work; 10/
(h) The right not to be subjected to torture, or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. 11/
Article 4
States should condemn violence against women and should not invoke any custom, tradition or religious consideration to avoid their obligations with respect to its elimination. States should pursue by all appropriate means and without delay a policy of eliminating violence against women and, to this end, should:

(a) Consider, where they have not yet done so, ratifying or acceding to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women or withdrawing reservations to that Convention;

(b) Refrain from engaging in violence against women;

(c) Exercise due diligence to prevent, investigate and, in accordance with national legislation, punish acts of violence against women, whether those acts are perpetrated by the State or by private persons;

_____________

8/ Universal Declaration of Human Rights, article 3; and International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, article 9.

9/ International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, article 12.

10/ Universal Declaration of Human Rights, article 23; and International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, articles 6 and 7.

11/ Universal Declaration of Human Rights, article 5; International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, article 7; and Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment.

(d) Develop penal, civil, labour and administrative sanctions in domestic legislation to punish and redress the wrongs caused to women who are subjected to violence; women who are subjected to violence should be provided with access to the mechanisms of justice and, as provided for by national legislation, to just and effective remedies for the harm that they have suffered; States should also inform women of their rights in seeking redress through such mechanisms;

(e) Consider the possibility of developing national plans of action to promote the protection of women against any form of violence, or to include provisions for that purpose in plans already existing, taking into account, as appropriate, such cooperation as can be provided by non-governmental organizations, particularly those concerned with the issue of violence against women;

(f) Develop, in a comprehensive way, preventive approaches and all those measures of a legal, political, administrative and cultural nature that promote the protection of women against any form of violence, and ensure that the re-victimization of women does not occur because of laws insensitive to gender considerations, enforcement practices or other interventions;

(g) Work to ensure, to the maximum extent feasible in the light of their available resources and, where needed, within the framework of international cooperation, that women subjected to violence and, where appropriate, their children have specialized assistance, such as rehabilitation, assistance in child care and maintenance, treatment, counselling, and health and social services, facilities and programmes, as well as support structures, and should take all other appropriate measures to promote their safety and physical and psychological rehabilitation;

(h) Include in government budgets adequate resources for their activities related to the elimination of violence against women;

(i) Take measures to ensure that law enforcement officers and public officials responsible for implementing policies to prevent, investigate and punish violence against women receive training to sensitize them to the needs of women;

(j) Adopt all appropriate measures, especially in the field of education, to modify the social and cultural patterns of conduct of men and women and to eliminate prejudices, customary practices and all other practices based on the idea of the inferiority or superiority of either of the sexes and on stereotyped roles for men and women;

(k) Promote research, collect data and compile statistics, especially concerning domestic violence, relating to the prevalence of different forms of violence against women and encourage research on the causes, nature, seriousness and consequences of violence against women and on the effectiveness of measures implemented to prevent and redress violence against women; those statistics and findings of the research will be made public;

(l) Adopt measures directed towards the elimination of violence against women who are especially vulnerable to violence;

(m) Include, in submitting reports as required under relevant human rights instruments of the United Nations, information pertaining to violence against women and measures taken to implement the present Declaration;

(n) Encourage the development of appropriate guidelines to assist in the implementation of the principles set forth in the present Declaration;

(o) Recognize the important role of the women’s movement and non-governmental organizations world wide in raising awareness and alleviating the problem of violence against women;

(p) Facilitate and enhance the work of the women’s movement and non-governmental organizations and cooperate with them at local, national and regional levels;

(q) Encourage intergovernmental regional organizations of which they are members to include the elimination of violence against women in their programmes, as appropriate.

Article 5
The organs and specialized agencies of the United Nations system should, within their respective fields of competence, contribute to the recognition and realization of the rights and the principles set forth in the present Declaration and, to this end, should, inter alia:

(a) Foster international and regional cooperation with a view to defining regional strategies for combating violence, exchanging experiences and financing programmes relating to the elimination of violence against women;

(b) Promote meetings and seminars with the aim of creating and raising awareness among all persons of the issue of the elimination of violence against women;

(c) Foster coordination and exchange within the United Nations system between human rights treaty bodies to address the issue of violence against women effectively;

(d) Include in analyses prepared by organizations and bodies of the United Nations system of social trends and problems, such as the periodic reports on the world social situation, examination of trends in violence against women;

(e) Encourage coordination between organizations and bodies of the United Nations system to incorporate the issue of violence against women into ongoing programmes, especially with reference to groups of women particularly vulnerable to violence;

(f) Promote the formulation of guidelines or manuals relating to violence against women, taking into account the measures referred to in the present Declaration;

(g) Consider the issue of the elimination of violence against women, as appropriate, in fulfilling their mandates with respect to the implementation of human rights instruments;

(h) Cooperate with non-governmental organizations in addressing the issue of violence against women.

Article 6
Nothing in the present Declaration shall affect any provision that is more conducive to the elimination of violence against women that may be contained in the legislation of a State or in any international convention, treaty or other instrument in force in a State.

Gender and Women’s Rights

These are two graphics from The World’s Muslims: Religion, Politics and Society by The Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life. The study provides interesting regional and cultural differences among the world Muslim population.

(En)Gendering the War on Terror

Rada Akbar has made two documentary films describing the life and hardship of Afghan women. One of her documentaries "Shattered Hopes" was selected for The Panorama Hindukusch-Film Festival in Köln, Germany 2009. Currently, she is working with GIZ-BEPA (Basic Education Program for Afghanistan), and she hopes her success can inspire other Afghan women. Discover more:http://www.afghanphotographynetwork.com/Rada-Akbar-1

Rada Akbar, the photographer, has made two documentary films describing the life and hardship of Afghan women. One of her documentaries “Shattered Hopes” was selected for The Panorama Hindukusch-Film Festival in Köln, Germany in 2009. Currently, she is working with GIZ-BEPA (Basic Education Program for Afghanistan), and she hopes her success can inspire other Afghan women. Discover more: http://www.afghanphotographynetwork.com/Rada-Akbar-1

“One of the most remarkable and lasting war stories is that the war on terror is being waged in order to protect women’s rights and liberate Muslim and Arab women in places like Afghanistan and Iraq. Thinking back to the initiation of war in Afghanistan, images of burqa-clad Afghan women represented as victims of ‘barbaric, unshaven, cave-dwelling fundamentalists’ dominated the media and provided the basis for the Bush administration’s rhetoric that this war would liberate Afghan women. A similar pattern emerged in Iraq as gendered and racialized representations of the war were used to convince Americans that the invasion of Iraq would liberate the Iraqi people from a brutal and misogynist dictator. This engendering of the war not only constructs the ‘victimized women to be rescued’, but also their ‘hyper-masculine rescuers’ and ‘cowardly oppressors’.

For many feminists, this war story about women’s liberation served to camouflage the Bush administration’s past and present record on women’s rights. For example, before 9/11 the Bush administration was engaged in political negotiations with the Taliban about the development of oil pipelines even though they were aware of the Taliban’s treatment of Afghan women… There [were] also emerging reports that Coalition forces have sexually assaulted imprisoned Iraqi women as well as female coalition soldiers in Afghanistan and Iraq… In the aftermath of war in Afghanistan and Iraq, women’s experiences of the war on terror continue to stand in stark opposition to the stories of liberation told by the Bush administration.

Moreover, this war story about women’s liberation deflects attention away from the violence that women, in particular, suffer as a result of war, including sexual violence, loss of male family members, and the burden of caring for the young, old, and injured. It also justifies violence in the name of women, implicating all women in the direct and indirect violence and destruction that occur form war… As Katharine Viner correctly notes, “…[F]eminists are left with the fact that their own beliefs are being trotted out by world leaders in the name of a cause which does nothing for the women it pretends to protect. This is nothing less than an abuse of feminism, one which will further discredit the cause of western feminism in the Arab world… (Viner, 2002).” —(9-11, Hunt and Rygiel) Chapter 1: (En)Gendered War Stories and Camouflaged Politics in (En)Gendering the War on Terror (2006)